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neurosciencenews:

Fruitfly Study Identifies Brain Circuit that Drives Daily Cycles of Rest and Activity

Read the full article Fruitfly Study Identifies Brain Circuit that Drives Daily Cycles of Rest and Activity at NeuroscienceNews.com.

Amita Sehgal, PhD, a professor of Neuroscience at the Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, describes in Cell a circuit in the brain of fruit flies that controls their daily, rhythmic behavior of rest and activity. The new study also found that the fly version of the human brain protein known as corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) is a major coordinating molecule in this circuit. Fly CRF, called DH44, is required for rest/activity cycles and is produced in cells that receive input from the clock cells in the fly brain. In mammals, CRF is secreted rhythmically and it drives the expression of glucocorticoids such as cortisol and is associated with stress and anxiety.

The research is in Cell. (full access paywall)

Research: “Identification of a Circadian Output Circuit for Rest:Activity Rhythms in Drosophila” by Daniel J. Cavanaugh, Jill D. Geratowski, Julian R.A. Wooltorton, Jennifer M. Spaethling, Clare E. Hector, Xiangzhong Zheng, Erik C. Johnson, James H. Eberwine, Amita Sehgal in Cell. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.02.024

Image: Model of the circadian output circuit for locomotor rhythms. One hemisphere of the fly brain is depicted. The circuit extends from the master pacemaker cells called s-LNvs (red), through other cells called DN1s (orange), and on to different types of pars intercerebralis cells (blue), which modulate locomotor rhythms through the release of the molecule DH44. Credit Daniel Cavanaugh.

spaceplasma:

Hubble Space Telescope (HST)

Named after the trailblazing astronomer Edwin P. Hubble (1889-1953), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a large, space-based observatory which has revolutionized astronomy by providing unprecedented deep and clear views of the Universe, ranging from our own solar system to extremely remote fledgling galaxies forming not long after the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago.

Launched in 1990 and greatly extended in its scientific powers through new instrumentation installed during four servicing missions with the Space Shuttle, the Hubble, in its eighteen years of operations, has validated Lyman Spitzer Jr.’s (1914-1997) original concept of a diversely instrumented observatory orbiting far above the distorting effects of the Earth’s atmosphere and returning data of unique scientific value.

Hubble’s coverage of light of different colors (its “spectral range”) extends from the ultraviolet, through the visible (to which our eyes are sensitive), and into the near-infrared. Hubble’s primary mirror is 2.4 meters (94.5 inches) in diameter. Hubble is not large by ground-based standards but it performs heroically in space. Hubble orbits Earth every 96 minutes, 575 kilometers (360 miles) above the Earth’s surface.

Credit:NASA

astronomicalwonders:

The Great Nebula in Orion

The Orion Nebula star-birth region is 1,500 light-years away, in the direction of the constellation Orion the Hunter. The image was taken on 29 December 1993 with the HST’s Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.

This is one of the nearest regions of very recent star formation (300,000 years ago). The nebula is a giant gas cloud illuminated by the brightest of the young hot stars on the right side of the picture. Many of the fainter young stars are surrounded by disks of dust and gas that are slightly more than twice the diameter of the Solar System. The great plume of gas in the upper left in this picture is the result of the ejection of material from a recently formed star.

The brightest portions are “hills” on the surface of the nebula, and the long bright bar is where Earth observers look along a long “wall” on a gaseous surface. The length of the image (top and bottom) is 1.6 light-years.

Credit: NASA/Hubble/C.R. O’Dell/Rice University

astronomy-to-zoology:

Lesser Gull (Cepora nadina)
…a species of Pierid butterfly that is native to India, Sri Lanka, and much of South Eastern Asia. Lesser gulls will typically fly during the wet season and are often seen in areas with primary and secondary forests. Lesser gull caterpillars feed almost exclusively on plants of the genus Capparis, adults have a broader diet. 
Classification
Animalia-Arthropoda-Insecta-Lepidoptera-Pieridae-Cepora-C. nadina
Images: J.M. Garg and Apatwardhan 
Zoom Info
astronomy-to-zoology:

Lesser Gull (Cepora nadina)
…a species of Pierid butterfly that is native to India, Sri Lanka, and much of South Eastern Asia. Lesser gulls will typically fly during the wet season and are often seen in areas with primary and secondary forests. Lesser gull caterpillars feed almost exclusively on plants of the genus Capparis, adults have a broader diet. 
Classification
Animalia-Arthropoda-Insecta-Lepidoptera-Pieridae-Cepora-C. nadina
Images: J.M. Garg and Apatwardhan 
Zoom Info

astronomy-to-zoology:

Lesser Gull (Cepora nadina)

…a species of Pierid butterfly that is native to India, Sri Lanka, and much of South Eastern Asia. Lesser gulls will typically fly during the wet season and are often seen in areas with primary and secondary forests. Lesser gull caterpillars feed almost exclusively on plants of the genus Capparis, adults have a broader diet. 

Classification

Animalia-Arthropoda-Insecta-Lepidoptera-Pieridae-Cepora-C. nadina

Images: J.M. Garg and Apatwardhan 

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